The Study of Language seventh edition - PDF

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Author: George Yule

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GET FASTER Download from an IPFS distributed storage, choose any gateway: Cloudflare Pinata local gateway download from the Tor mirror (make sure you're accessing via Tor) The Study of Language cover Author(s): George Yule Publisher: Cambridge University Press, Year: 2020 ISBN: 1108730701,9781108730709,1108499457,9781108499453 Search in WorldCat | Search in Goodreads | Search in AbeBooks | Search in Description: This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics and all the key elements of language. This seventh edition has been revised and updated throughout, with substantial changes to the chapters on phonetics and semantics, and forty new study questions. To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes over twenty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.

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This origin story from the lwaidja people of Australia, illustrated in the painting above, offers an explanation of not only where language came from, but also why there are so many different languages. Among the English-speaking people, there have been multiple attempts to provide a comparable explanation, but not much proof to support any of them. Instead of a belief in a single mythical earth mother, we have a variety of possible beliefs, all fairly speculative.  We simply don't have a definitive answer to the question of how language originated. We do know that the ability to produce sound and simple vocal patterning (a hum versus a grunt, for example) appears to be in an ancient part of the brain that we share with all vertebrates, including fish, frogs, birds and other mammals. But that isn't human language.  We suspect that some type of spoken language must have developed between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago, well before written language (about 5,000 years ago). Yet, among the traces of earlier periods of life on earth, we never find any direct evidence or artifacts relating to the speech of our distant ancestors that might tell us how language was back in the early stages, hence the multiple speculations. Closest to the lwaidja story are tales of gods blessing humans with the power of language. In the biblical tradition, as described in the book of Genesis, God created Adam and "whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof." Alternatively, following a Hindu tradition, it is Sarasvati, wife of Brahma, who is credited with bringing language to humanity. In most religions, there appears to be a divine source who provides humans with language. In an attempt to rediscover this original divine language, a few experiments have been carried out, with rather conflicting results. The basic hypothesis seems to have been that, if human infants were allowed to grow up without hearing any language around them, then they would spontaneously begin using the original God-given language. The Greek writer Herodotus reported the story of an Egyptian pharaoh named Psammetichus (or Psamtik) who tried the experiment with two newborn babies more than 2,500 years ago. After two years of isolation except for the company of goats and a mute shepherd, the children were reported to have spontaneously uttered, not an Egyptian word, but something that was identified as the Phrygian word bekos, meaning "bread." The pharaoh concluded that Phrygian, an older language spoken in part of what is modern Turkey, must be the original language. That seems very unlikely. The children may not have picked up this "word" from any human source, but as several commentators have pointed out, they must have heard what the goats were saying. (First remove the -kos ending, which was added in the Greek version of the story, then pronounce be- as you would the English word bed without -d at the end. Can you hear a goat?) King James the Fourth of Scotland carried out a similar experiment around the year 1500 and the children were reported to have spontaneously started speaking Hebrew, confirm­ ing the king's belief that Hebrew had indeed been the language of the Garden of Eden. About a century later, the Mogul emperor Akbar the Great also arranged for newborn babies to be raised in silence, only to find that the children produced no speech at all. It is unfortunate that Akbar's result is more in line with the real-world outcome for children who have been discovered living in isolation, without coming into contact with human speech. Very young children living without access to human language in their early years grow up with no language at all. This was true of Victor, the wild boy of Aveyron in France, discovered near the end of the eighteenth century, and also of Genie, an American child whose special life circumstances came to light in the 1970s (see Chapter 12). From this type of evidence, there is no "spontaneous" language. If human language did emanate from a divine source, we have no way of reconstructing that original language, especially given the events in a place called Babel, "because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth," as described in Genesis (11: 9).

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این داستان منشأ از مردم لوایدجا استرالیا، که در نقاشی بالا نشان داده شده است، توضیحی را ارائه می دهد که نه تنها زبان از کجا آمده است، بلکه چرایی زبان های مختلف بسیار زیاد است. در میان افراد انگلیسی زبان، تلاش‌های متعددی برای ارائه توضیحات قابل مقایسه صورت گرفته است، اما شواهد زیادی برای حمایت از هیچ یک از آنها وجود ندارد. به جای اعتقاد به یک مادر زمینی اسطوره ای مجرد، ما انواع باورهای ممکن را داریم که همگی نسبتاً حدس و گمان هستند. ما به سادگی پاسخ قطعی برای این سوال که زبان چگونه سرچشمه گرفته است نداریم. ما می دانیم که توانایی تولید صدا و الگوهای صوتی ساده (مثلاً زمزمه در مقابل خرخر کردن) به نظر می رسد در قسمت باستانی مغز است که ما با همه مهره داران از جمله ماهی، قورباغه، پرندگان و سایر پستانداران مشترک هستیم. اما این زبان انسان نیست. ما گمان می کنیم که نوعی از زبان گفتاری باید بین 100000 تا 50000 سال پیش، بسیار قبل از زبان نوشتاری (حدود 5000 سال پیش) توسعه یافته باشد. با این حال، در میان آثار دوره های اولیه زندگی بر روی زمین، ما هرگز هیچ مدرک یا مصنوع مستقیمی در رابطه با گفتار اجداد دورمان نمی یابیم که ممکن است به ما بگوید چگونه زبان در مراحل اولیه بازگشته است، از این رو حدس و گمان های متعدد وجود دارد. نزدیکترین داستان به داستان لوایدجا، داستانهای خدایان است که انسانها را با قدرت زبان برکت می دهند. در سنت کتاب مقدس، همانطور که در کتاب پیدایش شرح داده شده است، خداوند آدم را آفرید و «هر موجودی را که آدم نامید، نام آن بود». از سوی دیگر، پیروی از یک سنت هندو، این ساراسواتی، همسر برهما است که با آوردن زبان به بشریت اعتبار دارد. در بیشتر ادیان، به نظر می رسد که منبعی الهی وجود دارد که به انسان ها زبان می دهد. در تلاش برای کشف مجدد این زبان اصلی الهی، چند آزمایش انجام شده است که نتایج نسبتاً متناقضی داشته است. به نظر می رسد فرضیه اصلی این بوده است که اگر به نوزادان انسان اجازه داده شود بدون شنیدن هیچ زبانی در اطراف خود بزرگ شوند، آنگاه به طور خود به خود شروع به استفاده از زبان اصلی خدادادی خواهند کرد. هرودوت نویسنده یونانی داستان یک فرعون مصری به نام پسامتیکوس (یا پسامتیک) را گزارش کرد که بیش از 2500 سال پیش آزمایشی را با دو نوزاد تازه متولد شده انجام داد. پس از دو سال انزوا به جز همراهی بزها و یک چوپان لال، گزارش شده است که بچه ها به طور خود به خود، نه یک کلمه مصری، بلکه چیزی که به عنوان کلمه فریژی bekos به معنای «نان» شناخته شده است، به زبان آورده اند. فرعون به این نتیجه رسید که زبان فریجی، یک زبان قدیمی که در بخشی از ترکیه امروزی صحبت می شود، باید زبان اصلی باشد. که بسیار بعید به نظر می رسد. بچه ها ممکن است این "کلمه" را از هیچ منبع انسانی نگرفته باشند، اما همانطور که چندین مفسر اشاره کرده اند، حتما شنیده اند که بزها چه می گویند. (ابتدا پایان -kos را که در نسخه یونانی داستان اضافه شده است حذف کنید، سپس be- را مانند کلمه انگلیسی bed بدون -d در پایان تلفظ کنید. آیا صدای بز را می شنوید؟) پادشاه جیمز چهارم اسکاتلند آزمایش مشابهی را در حوالی سال 1500 انجام داد و گزارش شد که کودکان بطور خود به خود شروع به صحبت عبری کردند و این اعتقاد پادشاه را تأیید کرد که عبری واقعاً زبان باغ عدن بوده است. حدود یک قرن بعد، امپراتور مغول، اکبر کبیر نیز ترتیبی داد که نوزادان تازه متولد شده در سکوت بزرگ شوند، اما متوجه شد که کودکان اصلاً صحبت نمی کنند. مایه تاسف است که نتیجه اکبر بیشتر با نتیجه دنیای واقعی برای کودکانی که کشف شده اند در انزوا زندگی می کنند، بدون تماس با گفتار انسان، مطابقت دارد. کودکان بسیار کوچکی که در سال‌های اولیه زندگی بدون دسترسی به زبان انسانی زندگی می‌کنند، بدون زبان بزرگ می‌شوند. این در مورد ویکتور، پسر وحشی آویرون در فرانسه، که در اواخر قرن هجدهم کشف شد، و همچنین در مورد جن، کودک آمریکایی که شرایط خاص زندگی اش در دهه 1970 آشکار شد، صادق بود (به فصل 12 مراجعه کنید). از این نوع شواهد، هیچ زبان "خود به خودی" وجود ندارد. اگر زبان بشری از منبع الهی سرچشمه گرفته باشد، ما هیچ راهی برای بازسازی آن زبان اصلی نداریم، به ویژه با توجه به وقایع مکانی به نام بابل، "زیرا خداوند در آنجا زبان تمام زمین را آشفته کرد"، همانطور که در پیدایش توضیح داده شده است. 11: 9).


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Information on this title: DOI: 10.1017/9781108582889

® George Yule 2020

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First published 1985

Second edition 1996

Third edition 2006

Fourth edition 2010

Fifth edition 2014

Sixth edition 2017

Seventh edition 2020

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A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Yule, George, 1947- author.

Title: The study of language/ George Yule.

Description: Seventh edition. I New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, [2019] I Includes

bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2019020553 I ISBN 9781108499453 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Language and languages. I Linguistics.

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Preface page xi 3 The Sounds of Language 28 1 The Origins of Language 1 Phonetics 29 Consonants 29 The Divine Source 2 Voiced and Voiceless Sounds 29 The Natural Sound Source The "Bow-Wow" Theory ,, The "Pooh-Pooh" Theory ,, The Musical Source The Social Interaction Source The Physical Adaptation Source Teeth and Lips Mouth and Tongue Larynx and Pharynx The Tool-Making Source 7 American and British Diphthongs 37 The Human Brain 7 Subtle Individual Variation 37 The Genetic Source The Innateness Hypothesis 8 8 Study Questions Tasks 38 39 Study Questions 9 Discussion Topics/Projects 41 Tasks 9 Further Reading 42 Discussion Topics/Projects 10 Further Reading 11 4 The Sound Patterns of Language 44 2 Animals and Human Language 13 Phonology 45 Communication 14 Phonemes 46 Properties of Human Language 14 Natural Classes 46 Displacement 15 Phones and Allophones 47 Arbitrariness 15 Complementary Distribution 48 Cultural Transmission 16 Minimal Pairs and Sets 48 Productivity 17 Phonotactics 48 Duality 18 Syllables 49 Talking to Animals 18 Consonant Clusters 49 Chimpanzees and Language 19 Coarticulation Effects 50 Washoe 19 Assimilation 50 Sarah and Lana 20 Nasalization 50 The Controversy 21 Elision 51 Kanzi Using Language 22 22 Normal Speech Study Questions 51 52 Study Questions 23 Tasks 52 Tasks 23 Discussion Topics/Projects 55 Discussion Topics/Projects 24 Bob Belviso Translated 56 Further Reading 26 Further Reading 56 5 Word Formation 58 The Parts of Speech 94 Agreement 95 Neologisms 59 Grammatical Gender 96 Etymology 59 Traditional Analysis 96 Borrowing 60 The Prescriptive Approach 97 Loan-Translation 60 Captain Kirk's Infinitive 97 Compounding 61 The Descriptive Approach 98 Blending 61 Structural Analysis 98 Clipping 62 Constituent Analysis 99 Hypocorisms 62 Subjects and Objects 100 Backformation 62 Word Order 101 Conversion 63 Language Typology 101 Coinage 64 Why Study Grammar? 102 Acronyms 64 Study Questions 103 Derivation 65 Tasks 103 Prefixes and Suffixes 65 Discussion Topics/Projects 109 Infixes 65 Further Reading 110 Multiple Processes 66 Study Questions 67 8 Syntax 112 Tasks 68 Discussion Topics/Projects 72 Syntactic Rules 113 Further Reading 73 A Generative Grammar 113 Deep and Surface Structure 114 6 Morphology 75 Structural Ambiguity 114 Morphology 76 Syntactic Analysis 115 Morphemes 76 Phrase Structure Rules 116 Free and Bound Morphemes 77 Lexical Rules 116 Lexical and Functional Morphemes 77 Tree Diagrams 117 Derivational Morphemes 78 Tree Diagrams of English Sentences 118 Inflectional Morphemes 78 Just Scratching the Surface 119 Morphological Description 79 Study Questions 120 Morphs, Allomorphs and Special Cases 80 Tasks 121 Other Languages 81 Discussion Topics/Projects 126 Kanuri 81 Further Reading 128 Ganda 81 9 Semantics 129 Tagalog 82 Meaning 130 Study Questions 83 Semantic Features 131 Tasks 84 Componential Analysis 131 Discussion Topics/Projects 89 Words as Containers of Meaning 132 Further Reading 91 Semantic Roles 132 7 Grammar 92 Agent and Theme Instrument and Experiencer 132 133 English Grammar 93 Location, Source and Goal 133 Traditional Grammar 93 Lexical Relations 134 Synonymy 134 Hedges 175 Antonymy 135 lmplicatures 175 Hyponymy 135 Background Knowledge 176 Prototypes 137 Schemas and Scripts 177 Homophones and Homonyms 137 Study Questions 178 Polysemy 138 Tasks 178 Word Play 138 Discussion Topics/Projects 181 Metonymy 139 Further Reading 182 Collocation 139 Concordance 140 Study Questions 141 Tasks 142 Discussion Topics/Projects 146 Broca's Area 186 Further Reading 147 Wernicke's Area 186 10 Pragmatics 149 The Motor Cortex and the Arcuate Fasciculus 187 Invisible Meaning 150 The Localization View 187 Context 151 Tongue Tips and Slips 188 Deixis 152 The Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon 188 Reference 153 Slips of the Tongue 188 Inference 153 Slips of the Brain 189 Anaphora 154 Slips of the Ear 189 Presupposition 155 Aphasia 190 Pragmatic Markers 155 Broca's Aphasia 190 Politeness 156 Wernicke's Aphasia 191 Negative and Positive Face 156 Conduction Aphasia 191 Speech Acts 157 Dichotic Listening 192 Direct and Indirect Speech Acts 157 Left Brain, Right Brain 193 Study Questions 158 The Critical Period 193 Tasks 159 Genie 194 Discussion Topics/Projects 163 Study Questions 195 Further Reading 165 Tasks 195 Discussion Topics/Projects 197 11 Discourse Analysis 167 Further Reading 198 Discourse 168 13 First Language Acquisition Interpreting Discourse 168 201 Cohesion 169 Acquisition 202 Coherence 170 Input 202 Conversation Analysis 171 Caregiver Speech 203 Turn-Taking 171 The Acquisition Schedule 203 Pauses and Filled Pauses 172 Cooing 204 Adjacency Pairs 172 Babbling 204 Insertion Sequences 173 The One-Word Stage 205 The Co-operative Principle 174 The Two-Word Stage 205 viii Contents Telegraphic Speech 206 Oralism 237 The Acquisition Process 206 Signed English 237 Learning through Imitation? 207 Origins of ASL 238 Learning through Correction? 207 The Structure of Signs 238 Developing Morphology 208 Shape and Orientation 239 Developing Syntax 209 Location 239 Forming Questions 209 Movement 239 Forming Negatives 210 Primes 239 Developing Semantics 211 Facial Expressions and Finger-Spelling 240 Later Developments 212 Representing Signs 240 Study Questions 213 The Meaning of Signs 241 Tasks 213 Sign Languages as Natural Languages 242 Discussion Topics/Projects 216 Study Questions 243 Further Reading 217 Tasks 243 Discussion Topics/Projects 244 14 Second Language Acquisition/ Further Reading 245 Learning 219 Second Language Learning 220 16 Written Language 247 Acquisition and Learning 220 Writing 248 Acquisition Barriers 221 Pictograms 248 The Age Factor 221 Ideograms 249 Affective Factors 222 Logograms 250 Focus on Teaching Method 222 Phonographic Writing 251 The Grammar-Translation Method 223 The Rebus Principle 251 The Audiolingual Method 223 Syllabic Writing 252 Communicative Approaches 223 Alphabetic Writing 253 Focus on the Learner 224 Written English 254 Transfer 224 English Orthography 255 lnterlanguage 225 Study Questions 256 Motivation 225 Tasks 256 Input and Output 226 Discussion Topics/Projects 258 Task-Based Learning 227 Further Reading 260 Communicative Competence 227 Study Questions 228 Tasks 228 17 Language History and Change 262 Discussion Topics/Projects 231 Family Trees 263 Further Reading 232 Inda-European 264 Cognates 264 15 Gestures and Sign Languages 234 Comparative Reconstruction 265 Gestures 235 Comparing Cognates 265 lconics 235 Sound Reconstruction 266 Deictics 235 Word Reconstruction 266 Beats 236 The History of English 267 Types of Sign Languages 236 Old English 267 Middle English 268 Speech Accommodation 300 Sound Changes 269 Convergence 300 Metathesis 269 Divergence 301 Epenthesis 270 Register 301 Prothesis 270 Jargon 301 Syntactic Changes 270 Slang 302 Loss of Inflections 271 Taboo Terms 302 Semantic Changes 271 African American English 303 Broadening of Meaning 272 Vernacular Language 303 Narrowing of Meaning 272 The Sounds of a Vernacular 304 Diachronic and Synchronic Variation 272 The Grammar of a Vernacular 304 Study Questions 273 Study Questions 306 Tasks 273 Tasks 306 Discussion Topics/Projects 276 Discussion Topics/Projects 309 Further Reading 277 Further Reading 309 18 Regional Variation in Language 279 20 Language and Culture 311 The Standard Language 280 Culture 312 Accent and Dialect 280 Categories 312 Variation in Grammar 281 Kinship Terms 313 Dialectology 281 Time Concepts 313 Regional Dialects 282 Linguistic Relativity 314 lsoglosses 282 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 314 Dialect Boundaries 283 Against the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 315 The Dialect Continuum 284 Snow 315 Bilingualism 284 Non-lexicalized Categories 316 Diglossia 285 Cognitive Categories 316 Language Planning 286 Classifiers 317 Pidgins 287 Social Categories 317 Creoles 288 Address Terms 318 The Post-Creole Continuum 288 Gender 319 Study Questions 289 Gendered Words 319 Tasks 289 Gendered Structures 320 Discussion Topics/Projects 292 Gendered Speech 320 Further Reading 292 Same-Gender Talk 321 Gendered Interaction 321 19 Social Variation in Language 295 Study Questions 322 Tasks 322 Sociolinguistics 296 Discussion Topics/Projects 326 Social Dialects 296 Further Reading 327 Education and Occupation 297 Social Markers 298 Glossary 330 Speech Style and Style-Shifting 299 References 345 Prestige 300 Index 362

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