Introduction to Sonography and Patient Care - Original PDF

دانلود کتاب Introduction to Sonography and Patient Care - Original PDF

Author: Steven M. Penny

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Introduction to Sonography and Patient Care BY Steven M. Penny

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Introduction to Sonography and Patient Care offers today’s students the training and real-world imaging experience they need to master sonography content and competencies, sets the stage for students to excel on certification exams and succeed in their professional careers . This engaging, reader-friendly book provides a powerful bridge to practice, focusing throughout on giving students a first-hand look at how they will apply their training in a clinical setting.

Mirroring JRC-DMS standards in every chapter, the book provides a full overview of need-to-know content delivered at a level appropriate for future sonographers. The text includes topics often omitted in other texts, such as basic physics principles, instrumentation, knobology, patient positioning, professionalism and work ethic, equipment care, quality assurance, and legal essentials.

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Ebook details:
عنوان: Introduction to Sonography and Patient Care
نویسنده: Steven M. Penny
ناشر: LWW; First edition (October 8, 2015)
زبان: English
شابک: 1451192592, 978-1451192599

9781496325907, 1496325907
حجم: 95 Mb
فرمت: Original PDF

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Front Matter Contributors Reviewers Preface FOR STUDENTS FOR INSTRUCTORS FINAL NOTE Acknowledgments PART I: Introduction to Sonography 1: Foundations for the Sonography Student CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION Figure 1-1. GOING BACK TO SCHOOL Sound Off STRESS: INEVITABLE BUT MANAGEABLE TABLE 1-1: Dealing with stress and anxiety Financial Preparedness TABLE 1-2: Median annual compensation for sonographers in 2012 TABLE 1-3: Money-saving tips for the sonography student Sound Off Emotional Stability and Support Sound Off Physical Well-Being Sound Off TIME MANAGEMENT TABLE 1-4: Time management tips for sonography students Sound Off ESTABLISHING EDUCATIONAL GOALS TABLE 1-5: Five basic steps of goal setting CLASSROOM SURVIVAL SKILLS Pertinent Coursework Sound Off Sound Off Preparing for Tests TABLE 1-6: Test preparation tips Sound Off TABLE 1-7: Test-taking tips Maintaining Motivation in the Classroom CLINICAL SURVIVAL SKILLS The Sonographer: A Brief Overview Figure 1-2. Figure 1-3. Figure 1-4. TABLE 1-8: Ranges of sound Sound Off Figure 1-5. Sound Off Utilizing the Scan Lab Figure 1-6. Sound Off Figure 1-7. Figure 1-8. Essentials of Professionalism in Clinical Sound Off TABLE 1-9: Key concepts of the Hippocratic Oath Essentials of Work Ethic in Clinical Settings TABLE 1-10: Daily tasks for the sonography student Figure 1-9. Sound Off CLINICAL ORIENTATION AND INFORMATION GATHERING TABLE 1-11: Clinical orientation tasks for the sonography student Figure 1-10. Sound Off Understanding Workflow Imaging Departments and Modalities Figure 1-11. Figure 1-12. Radiography Figure 1-13. Figure 1-14. Sound Off Computed Tomography Figure 1-15. Figure 1-16. Nuclear Medicine Technology Figure 1-17. Sound Off Mammography Figure 1-18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Figure 1-19. Cardiovascular Interventional Technology and Vascular Interventional Technology APPRECIATING CRITICAL THINKING TABLE 1-12: Qualities of well-cultivated critical thinkers Sound Off TABLE 1-13: Steps for successful critical thinking in sonography Student Application of Critical Thinking TABLE 1-14: Personal clinical journal components Sound Off SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 1 Review Questions 2: The Sonographer: A Closer Look CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION KNOW YOURSELF BEFORE YOU KNOW OTHERS Identifying Your Personality Type TABLE 2-1: The different components of Myers-Briggs personality typing TABLE 2-2: Advantages of different personality types Emotional Intelligence TABLE 2-3: The five components of emotional intelligence Sound Off TABLE 2-4: Emotional Intelligence Online Resources Now What? ETHICS AT WORK Character Sound Off Sound Off Sound Off Competent Care and Flexibility Sound Off Courtesy and Respect Compassion and Empathy Sound Off TABLE 2-5: Coping with compassion fatigue Accountability, Honesty, and Integrity TABLE 2-6: First-rate standards in sonography Sound Off Self-Motivation and Enthusiasm Sound Off Hunger for Knowledge Self-Confidence Final Thoughts on Character CLINICAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND WORKPLACE CHALLENGES FOR THE SONOGRAPHER TABLE 2-7: Required strengths of the sonographer Sonographic Reasoning and Clinical Correlation Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2. Sound Off TABLE 2-8: Routine clinical history questions TABLE 2-9: Routine clinical investigation tasks Figure 2-3. Figure 2-4. Figure 2-5. Sonographic reasoning method (SRM) simplified as a five-step process (IMAGE) for sonography students.31 Appreciating Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology TABLE 2-10: Tips to improve hand-eye coordination Sonographer Reports TABLE 2-11: Common sonographic descriptive terminology Figure 2-6. Figure 2-7. Figure 2-8. Figure 2-9. Figure 2-10. Figure 2-11. Figure 2-12. Figure 2-13. Figure 2-14. Figure 2-15. Occupational Stress for the Sonographer TABLE 2-12: Tips for reducing burnout on the job STUDENT INTERACTION WITH SONOGRAPHERS TABLE 2-13: Ways to annoy sonographers When and How to Communicate Acquiring Scan Time TABLE 2-14: Tips for getting more scan time STUDENT INTERACTION WITH INTERPRETING PHYSICIANS TABLE 2-15: Must-know information before presenting cases to a physician SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Figure 2-16. Figure 2-17. Sonographic reasoning diagram.31 Chapter 2 Review Questions 3: Historical and Current Applications of Ultrasound in Medicine CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION THE STUDY OF SOUND Sound Off Sound Off Figure 3-1. Sound Off Figure 3-2. Sound Off ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE Figure 3-3. Figure 3-4. Figure 3-5. Sound Off Imaging Modes and Doppler Display Options Figure 3-6. Figure 3-7. Figure 3-8. Figure 3-9. Sound Off Doppler Technology Figure 3-10. Figure 3-11. Figure 3-12. Figure 3-13. Figure 3-14. Figure 3-15. Figure 3-16. Sound Off Tissue Harmonic Imaging Figure 3-17. Figure 3-18. 3D and 4D Technology Figure 3-19. Sound Off Sound Off SPECIALTIES IN SONOGRAPHY Abdominal Sonography Figure 3-20. TABLE 3-1: AIUM indications for an abdominal and/or retroperitoneal sonogram TABLE 3-2: Components of an abdominal sonographic imaging exam Figure 3-21. TABLE 3-3: Current trends in abdominal sonography Small Parts Sonography TABLE 3-4: AIUM indications for a scrotal sonogram TABLE 3-5: AIUM indications for a thyroid and parathyroid sonogram (neck) TABLE 3-6: AIUM indications for a prostate sonogram Sound Off Figure 3-22. Figure 3-23. Figure 3-24. Breast Sonography TABLE 3-7: AIUM indications for a breast sonogram Sound Off Figure 3-25. Sound Off Neurosonography and Pediatric Sonography Figure 3-26. TABLE 3-8: AIUM indications for neurosonography in neonates and infants TABLE 3-9: AIUM indications for an infant spine sonogram Sound Off Musculoskeletal Sonography Figure 3-27. TABLE 3-10: AIUM indications for a musculoskeletal sonogram Gynecologic Sonography TABLE 3-11: AIUM indications for gynecologic sonography TABLE 3-12: Current trends in gynecologic sonography Figure 3-28. TABLE 3-13: AIUM indications for sonohysterography Figure 3-29. Sound Off Obstetric Sonography TABLE 3-14: Current trends in obstetric sonography TABLE 3-15: AIUM indications for a first-trimester sonogram Figure 3-30. Sound Off TABLE 3-16: AIUM indications for second- and third-trimester sonograms Figure 3-31. Fetal Echocardiography Figure 3-32. TABLE 3-17: AIUM indications for fetal echocardiography Vascular Sonography (Contributed by Traci B. Fox) Figure 3-33. TABLE 3-18: Indications for vascular sonography TABLE 3-19: Current trends in vascular sonography Figure 3-34. Echocardiography (Contributed by Maureen McDonald) Figure 3-35. Figure 3-36. TABLE 3-20: Current trends in echocardiography Sound Off Transthoracic Echocardiograms TABLE 3-21: Common indications for a transthoracic echocardiogram Figure 3-37. Stress Echocardiography TABLE 3-22: Indications for stress echocardiograms Exercise Stress Echocardiography Figure 3-38. Pharmacologic Stress Echocardiogram Transesophageal Echocardiography TABLE 3-23: Indications for a transesophageal echocardiogram Pediatric Echocardiography TABLE 3-24: Indications for a pediatric transthoracic echocardiogram ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS Therapeutic Ultrasound High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Ultrasound-Guided Brachytherapy Figure 3-39. Figure 3-40. Ultrasound Elastography Figure 3-41. Fusion Imaging Figure 3-42. Intravascular Ultrasound Figure 3-43. Figure 3-44. Automated Ultrasound Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma Miniaturization Figure 3-45. Wireless Technology: It’s Here! SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 3 Review Questions 4: Professional Environment, Leadership, and Career Establishment CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT Academic Accreditation (CAAHEP, JRC-DMS, JRC-CVT) Sound Off Professional Organizations (SDMS, SVU, ASE, SOPE, AIUM) Sound Off National Certification (ARDMS, CCI, ARRT) Figure 4-1. Sound Off Maintaining Certification Laboratory Accreditation LEADERSHIP ROLES IN SONOGRAPHY Sound Off Sound Off Leadership Styles and Followership Sound Off Sound Off Sound Off Staff Sonographer TABLE 4-1: Staff sonographer professional development Sound Off Advanced Practice Sonographer Management in Sonography Sound Off Sonography Educators Sound Off Travel Sonographers Consultants or Technical Advisors Sales/Application Specialist Sonography Entrepreneur CAREER ESTABLISHMENT Sound Off TABLE 4-2: ARDMS examination pass rates in 2012 Sound Off Searching and Applying for Jobs Sound Off Resume Writing and Social Networking TABLE 4-3: Seven basic steps for resume writing Sound Off Sound Off Interview Tips TABLE 4-4: Steps to take before an interview SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 4 Review Questions 5: Ergonomics and the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS? TABLE 5-1: Most common areas of work-related injury for sonographers ERGONOMICS TABLE 5-2: Several ergonomic requirements of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BODY MECHANICS Figure 5-1. Figure 5-2. Figure 5-3. TABLE 5-3: Correct posture by body position Figure 5-4. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS Sound Off Posture and Body Positioning Figure 5-5. Figure 5-6. TABLE 5-4: WRMSDs preventative pre-examination steps Figure 5-7. Figure 5-8. Repetitive Motions and Force or Pressure Sound Off Sound Off Room Design TABLE 5-5: Helpful tips for physical aches during clinical observations Sound Off Equipment Design Figure 5-9. Job Design TABLE 5-6: Top 10 job tasks that aggravate musculoskeletal symptoms Underlying Predisposing Conditions INFLAMMATORY DISEASES LINKED TO WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS Figure 5-10. Figure 5-11. TABLE 5-7: Warning signs of WRMSDs BEST PRACTICES AND ERGONOMIC INTERVENTIONS FOR THE SONOGRAPHY STUDENT TABLE 5-8: Web links for sonographer stretches TABLE 5-9: Summary of best practices as prescribed by the Consensus Conference on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Shoulder and Elbow Figure 5-12. Figure 5-13. Figure 5-14. TABLE 5-10: Steps to prevent shoulder and elbow discomfort Wrist and Hand Figure 5-15. Figure 5-16. Figure 5-17. Figure 5-18. Figure 5-19. Figure 5-20. Figure 5-21. Figure 5-22. Figure 5-23. Sound Off Neck and Back Figure 5-24. Lower Extremities Figure 5-25. GENERAL TREATMENT OF WRMSDs AND LIFESTYLE IMPACT SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 5 Review Questions 6: Ethics and Professionalism CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION ETHICS AND PERSONAL VALUES Ethical Theories TABLE 6-1: Immanuel Kant’s ethical theory Sound Off Ethics in Action TABLE 6-2: Ethical decision-making process Sound Off Medical Ethics and Codes of Ethics TABLE 6-3: Guiding ethical principles of medical ethics The Sonographer Code of Ethics TABLE 6-4: SDMS principles of the Code of Ethics for the Profession of Diagnostic Medical Sonography Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Medical Sonography Non-Diagnostic Use of Ultrasound Ultrasound Screening for Vascular Disease The Role of the Sonographer in the Abortion Debate PROFESSIONALISM Sound Off Professional Etiquette TABLE 6-5: Best practices for professional etiquette First Impressions for the Sonography Student TABLE 6-6: Tips for improving how you are perceived by others in the workplace Sound Off TABLE 6-7: Topics to avoid to maintain professional decorum SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 6 Review Questions 7: Legal Essentials and Patient Rights CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION LAW BASICS Sound Off TYPES OF LAW Common Law Sound Off Statutory Law Administrative Law Criminal Law Civil Law Figure 7-1. Figure 7-2. TABLE 7-1: Examples of intentional torts TABLE 7-2: Examples of unintentional torts Sound Off Intentional Torts Unintentional Torts TABLE 7-3: Four Ds of negligence TABLE 7-4: Diagnostic Ultrasound Clinical Practice Standards of the Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography Figure 7-3. SONOGRAPHER SCOPE OF PRACTICE TABLE 7-5: The Society for Diagnostic Medical Sonography Scope of Practice for the Diagnostic Ultrasound Professional Sound Off TABLE 7-6: Tips for preventing medical malpractice TABLE 7-7: liability insurance Questions to ask when considering purchasing professional GOOD SAMARITAN LAWS PATIENT RIGHTS TABLE 7-8: Summary of the AHA Patient Care Partnership Sound Off HIPAA and Patient Confidentiality TABLE 7-9: Several notable provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 Figure 7-4. Patient Rights Related to End-of-Life Issues SONOGRAPHER DOCUMENTATION SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 7 Review Questions 8: Basic Principles and Knobology CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION DIRECTIONAL TERMINOLOGY AND PATIENT POSITIONING TABLE 8-1: Directional terms Figure 8-1. Sound Off TABLE 8-2: Patient positions Figure 8-2. Sound Off TRANSDUCERS Figure 8-3. Figure 8-4. Figure 8-5. Figure 8-6. Figure 8-7. Sound Off Transducer Manipulation Sound Off Transducer Orientation and Scanning Planes Figure 8-8. Sound Off Medical and Vascular Sonography Scanning Planes Figure 8-9. Figure 8-10. Transthoracic Echocardiography Scanning Planes Figure 8-11. Figure 8-12. Figure 8-13. Figure 8-14. Care and Cleaning of Transducers Sound Off B-MODE AND BASIC DOPPLER OVERVIEW Figure 8-15. Figure 8-16. Figure 8-17. ESSENTIAL UNIVERSAL KNOBOLOGY Sound Off Acoustic Power Annotation Keys B-Color Body Markers Calipers Figure 8-18. Cine (Cine Loop) Sound Off Color (Doppler) Continuous-Wave Doppler Depth Figure 8-19. Sound Off Dual Image Figure 8-20. Ellipse Figure 8-21. Field of View (Extended Field of View) Figure 8-22. Freeze HD Zoom Image Store/Print MultiHertz Overall Gain Figure 8-23. Sound Off Time Gain Compensation Figure 8-24. Figure 8-25. Sound Off Tissue Equalization Trace Figure 8-26. Trackball Transducer Select M-Mode Figure 8-27. Pulsed-Wave Doppler Figure 8-28. Transmit Zone or Focus Sound Off Zoom SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 8 Review Questions PART II: Introduction to Patient Care 9: Fundamentals of Communication for Sonographers CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION PRIMARY HUMAN NEEDS Figure 9-1. Figure 9-2. THE GRIEVING PROCESS COMMUNICATION Five Elements of Communication Forms of Communication Nonverbal Communication Verbal Communication TABLE 9-1: Therapeutic verbal communication techniques TABLE 9-2: Nontherapeutic verbal communication techniques Additional Potential Barriers to Effective Communication TABLE 9-3: Addressing patient emotions TABLE 9-4: Dealing with patients with different physical conditions CULTURAL COMPETENCE Figure 9-3. THE SONOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION: 10 STEPS Step 1: Assessment of Relevant Documents TABLE 9-5: Components of a requisition Step 2: Examining Reports and Images Step 3: Preparing the Examination Room and Protocol Review Step 4: Introducing Yourself and Patient Confirmation Step 5: Gathering Clinical History TABLE 9-6: Examples of closed-ended and open-ended questions TABLE 9-7: Active listening—remember RASA Step 6: Patient Education TABLE 9-8: Educating the patient about sonography Step 7: Conducting the Sonogram Step 8: Completing the Sonographer’s Report Step 9: Sonographer Interaction with Interpreting Physician Step 10: Discharging the Patient SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 9 Review Questions 10: Fundamental Patient Care CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION PATIENT ASSESSMENT TABLE 10-1: Vital signs Sound Off Body Temperature TABLE 10-2: Body temperatures ranges by age TABLE 10-3: Average body temperatures by measurement sites Figure 10-1. Sound Off Pulse (Appendix 3, Procedure 10-1) TABLE 10-4: Location of arteries for obtaining pulse rates Figure 10-2. Figure 10-3. Figure 10-4. TABLE 10-5: Pulse rates by age TABLE 10-6: Possible causes of tachycardia TABLE 10-7: Possible causes of bradycardia TABLE 10-8: Pulse monitoring devices Figure 10-5. Blood Pressure (Appendix 3, Procedure 10-2) TABLE 10-9: Factors that can affect BP Figure 10-6. TABLE 10-10: Average BP by age Sound Off Respiration (Appendix 3, Procedure 10-3) TABLE 10-11: Average respiration rate by age Sound Off TABLE 10-12: Possible causes of tachypnea TABLE 10-13: Possible causes of bradypnea PATIENT ASSISTANCE Evaluating the Patient’s Mobility TABLE 10-14: Evaluating the patient’s mobility Transferring and Transporting Patients (Appendix 3, Procedures 10-4, 10-5, 10-6, and 10-7) TABLE 10-15: Steps to take when transporting patients Sound Off Circumstances Requiring Unique Assistance Care for Patients with Intravenous Infusion Figure 10-7. Sound Off Care for Patients with Urinary Catheters Figure 10-8. Figure 10-9. Sound Off Care for Patients on Oxygen Therapy Figure 10-10. Figure 10-11. Sound Off Assisting Patients with Bedpans or Urinals Figure 10-12. TABLE 10-16: Bedpan assistance TABLE 10-17: Urinal assistance Portable Sonography TABLE 10-18: Portable sonography Sound Off INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY STUDENTS Figure 10-13. Lead Placement Figure 10-14. Figure 10-15. Simplified Heart Anatomy and Circulation Figure 10-16. The Cardiac Conduction System Figure 10-17. Normal Sinus Rhythm Figure 10-18. Figure 10-19. SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 10 Review Questions 11: Medical Emergencies CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION THE ROLE OF THE SONOGRAPHER IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Sound Off ASSESSING THE PATIENT’S NEUROLOGIC AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION TABLE 11-1: Adapted ACDU scale for sonographers TABLE 11-2: Stages of shock Sound Off TYPES OF EMERGENCIES Shock Figure 11-1. Sound Off Sound Off Figure 11-2. Sound Off Syncope Sound Off Figure 11-3. Sound Off Figure 11-4. Seizures TABLE 11-3: Response to a patient having a seizure Pulmonary Embolus Figure 11-5. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) Sound Off Diabetic Emergencies Figure 11-6. Sound Off Emergencies Requiring Immediate Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation TABLE 11-4: Emergency situations requiring CPR Sound Off SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 11 Review Questions 12: Infection Control for the Sonographer CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION INFECTION TABLE 12-1: Pathogen types Sound Off Conditions that Favor the Growth of Pathogens The Cycle of Infection and Modes of Transmission Figure 12-1. TABLE 12-2: Modes of pathogen transmission TABLE 12-3: Common communicable diseases Figure 12-2. Sound Off TABLE 12-4: Stage of infection Sound Off Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections Figure 12-3. Sound Off WORKPLACE EXPOSURE FOR THE SONOGRAPHER Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Figure 12-4. Sound Off Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Clostridium difficile Tuberculosis Figure 12-5. Sound Off Figure 12-6. Figure 12-7. Bloodborne Pathogens Viral Hepatitis Sound Off HIV and AIDS BREAKING THE CYCLE OF INFECTION Standard Precautions Figure 12-8. Figure 12-9. Sound Off Hand Hygiene (Appendix 3, Procedure 12-1) Figure 12-10. TABLE 12-5: Aseptic hand-washing technique Sound Off Personal Protective Equipment Figure 12-11. Figure 12-12. Gloving TABLE 12-6: Removing dirty gloves Figure 12-13 Figure 12-14 Figure 12-15 Figure 12-16 Sound Off Other Personal Protective Equipment (Appendix 3, Procedure 12-2) TABLE 12-7: Gowning Figure 12-17 Figure 12-18 Figure 12-19 Figure 12-20 Transmission-Based Precautions Figure 12-21. Sound Off Medical Asepsis in the Sonography Department Personal Hygiene and Dress in the Workplace Cleaning Equipment Sound Off Figure 12-22. Sound Off Nonsterile Probe Covers Figure 12-23. TABLE 12-8: Steps for draping a transducer with a non-sterile probe cover Sound Off Proper Disposal of Examination Waste Items (Appendix 3, Procedure 12-3) WHAT IF YOU ARE EXPOSED? SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 12 Review Questions 13: Invasive Procedures and Surgical Asepsis CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION SURGICAL ASEPSIS TABLE 13-1: Invasive procedures commonly performed in the sonography department Figure 13-1. Figure 13-2. Figure 13-3. Figure 13-4. Figure 13-5. The Rules of Surgical Asepsis Sound Off Preparing for an Invasive Procedure Sound Off Skin Preparation and Draping (Appendix 3, Procedure 13-1) Figure 13-6. Figure 13-7. Opening a Sterile Pack and Adding Items to a Sterile Field (Appendix 3, Procedure 13-2) Figure 13-8. Figure 13-9. Figure 13-10. Figure 13-11. Sound Off Sterile Gloving Figure 13-12. Figure 13-13. Figure 13-14. Figure 13-15. Sound Off Draping a Transducer with a Sterile Probe Cover and Needle Guide Figure 13-16. Figure 13-17. Sound Off Syringe Assistance and Needle Disposal Figure 13-18. Figure 13-19. Sound Off SONOGRAPHY IN THE OPERATING ROOM Sound Off The Surgical Scrub (Appendix 3, Procedure 13-4) STERILE GOWNING Figure 13-20. Figure 13-21. THE SURGICAL TEAM Sound Off SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 13 Review Questions 14: Sonographic Examination and Guidelines CHAPTER OBJECTIVES KEY TERMS INTRODUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE AS LOW AS REASONABLY ACHIEVABLE ABDOMINAL AND SMALL PART SONOGRAPHY Liver Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Pancreas Spleen Bowel Peritoneal Fluid Abdominal Wall Kidneys and Urinary Bladder (Renal Sonogram) Renal Vascular Assessment Abdominal Aorta and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) BREAST SONOGRAPHY SCROTAL SONOGRAPHY THYROID, CERVICAL LYMPH NODE, AND PARATHYROID SONOGRAPHY MUSCULOSKELETAL SONOGRAPHY Shoulder Examination GYNECOLOGIC SONOGRAPHY Sonohysterography OBSTETRIC SONOGRAPHY First Trimester Second and Third Trimesters TABLE 14-1: Basic fetal anatomy survey in the second- and third-trimester sonogram VASCULAR SONOGRAPHY Carotid Sonogram Peripheral Venous Sonography Upper Extremity Venous Sonogram Peripheral Arterial TRANSTHORACIC ADULT ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY TABLE 14-2: Transthoracic echocardiography basic assessment SUMMARY REFERENCES Thinking Critically Chapter 14 Review Questions Back Matter Appendix 1: Medical Terminology Bibliography Appendix 2: Translation Resources and English-to-Spanish Phrases* Bibliography Appendix 3: Patient Care Procedures Procedure 10-1 Measuring a Radial Pulse1 Figure A3-1. Procedure 10-2 Measuring a Blood Pressure1,2 Figure A3-2. Figure A3-3. Figure A3-4. Figure A3-5. Figure A3-6. Procedure 10-3 Measuring Respirations Procedure 10-4 Sheet Transfer3 Figure A3-7. Figure A3-8. Figure A3-9. Procedure 10-5 Log Roll3 Procedure 10-6 Sliding Board Transfer3 Figure A3-10. Figure A3-11. Figure A3-12. Procedure 10-7 Wheelchair Transfer3 Figure A3-13. Figure A3-14. Procedure 12-1 Hand Hygiene1 Figure A3-15. Figure A3-16. Figure A3-17. Figure A3-18. Procedure 12-2 Removing Personal Protective Equipment4 Figure A3-19. Figure A3-20. Procedure 12-3 Cleaning Biohazardous Spills1 Procedure 13-1 Skin Preparation3 Figure A3-21. Procedure 13-2 Opening a Sterile Pack3 Figure A3-22. Figure A3-23. Figure A3-24. Figure A3-25. References Appendix 4: Electrocardiographic Dysrhythmias1 Reference Appendix 5: Laboratory Tests Index

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