Essentials of Oceanography (13th Edition) Original PDF

دانلود کتاب Essentials of Oceanography (13th Edition) Original PDF

Author: Alan P. Trujillo, Harold V. Thurman

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For courses in oceanography

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For courses in oceanography.

 

Dive in to oceanography with trusted content and innovative media

As the bestselling brief book in the oceanography market, Essentials of Oceanography combines dynamic visuals and a student-friendly narrative to bring oceanography to life. The text’s engaging features and the extensive suite of animations and videos keep students interested and excited about the material.

 

The 13th Edition creates an interactive learning experience that provides tightly integrated text and digital offerings to make oceanography approachable and digestible for students. An emphasis on the process of science throughout the text provides students with an understanding of how scientists think and work. The new edition also helps students develop the scientific skill of practicing and interpreting data with new Exploring Data features supported by Mastering Oceanography coaching activities. A new Creature Feature provides fun facts about marine animals to engage students.

 

Also available with Mastering Oceanography

By combining trusted author content with digital tools and a flexible platform, Mastering personalizes the learning experience and improves results for each student.Built for, and directly tied to the text, Mastering Oceanography enables an extension of learning allowing students a platform to practice, learn, and apply outside of the classroom.  

 

Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; Mastering Oceanography does not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with Mastering Oceanography, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.

 

If you would like to purchase both the physical text and Mastering Oceanography search for:

 

0135185629/9780135185629 Essentials of Oceanography Plus Mastering Oceanography with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package, 13/e

 

Package consists of:

  • 013489152X / 9780134891521 Essentials of Oceanography
  • 0135175143 / 9780135175149 Mastering Oceanography with Pearson eText -- ValuePack Access Card -- for Essentials of Oceanography, 13/e

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Ebook details:
عنوان: Essentials of Oceanography (13th Edition)
نویسنده: Alan P. Trujillo, Harold V. Thurman
ناشر: Pearson; 13 edition (April 25, 2019)
زبان: English
شابک: 013489152X, 978-0134891521
حجم: 368 Mb
فرمت: True Pdf

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Brief Contents Dive into Oceanography with Trusted Content and Innovative Media Title Page Copyright Page About the Authors Contents Preface 1 Introduction To Planet “Earth” Essential Learning Concepts 1.1 How Are Earth’s Oceans Unique? Earth’s Amazing Oceans How Many Oceans Exist on Earth? The Four Principal Oceans, Plus One Oceans versus Seas 1.2 How Was Early Exploration of the Oceans Achieved? Early History The Middle Ages The Age of Discovery in Europe The Beginning of Voyaging for Science History of Oceanography . . . To Be Continued 1.3 What Fields of Science Does Oceanography Include? 1.4 What Is the Process of Science and the Nature of Scientific Inquiry? Observations Hypotheses Testing PROCESS OF SCIENCE 1.1:Why Do Whales Leap? Theory Theories and the Truth 1.5 How Were Earth and the Solar System Formed? The Nebular Hypothesis Proto-Earth Density and Density Stratification Earth’s Internal Structure 1.6 How Were Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans Formed? Origin of Earth’s Atmosphere Origin of Earth’s Oceans 1.7 Did Life Begin in the Oceans? The Importance of Oxygen to Life Stanley Miller’s Experiment DIVING DEEPER 1.1: HISTORICAL FEATURE The Voyage of HMS Beagle: How it Shaped Charles Darwin’s Thi Evolution and Natural Selection Plants and Animals Evolve 1.8 How Old Is Earth? Radiometric Age Dating The Geologic Time Scale ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS REVIEW 2 Plate Tectonics and the Ocean Floor Essential Learning Concepts 2.1 What Evidence Supports Continental Drift? PROCESS OF SCIENCE:Why Do the Edges of the ContinentsAppear to Fit Together? Testing the Idea: Matching Sequences of Rocksand Mountain Chains More Observations: Glacial Agesand Other Climate Evidence Evidence from Fossils: Distributionof Organisms Objections to the Continental Drift Model 2.2 What Additional Observations Led to the Theory of Plate Tectonics? Earth’s Magnetic Field and Paleomagnetism Process of Science 2.1 Do Sea Turtles Use Earth’s Magnetic Field for Navigation? Diving Deeper 2.1 Research Methods in Oceanography Using Moving Continents to Resolve an Apparent Sea Floor Spreading and Features of the Ocean Basins Other Evidence from the Ocean Basins Detecting Plate Motion with Satellites The Acceptance of a Theory 2.3 What Features Occur at Plate Boundaries? Divergent Boundary Features Convergent Boundary Features Transform Boundary Features 2.4 Testing the Model: Can Plate Tectonics Explain Other Features in the Ocean and on Land? Hotspots and Mantle Plumes Seamounts and Tablemounts Coral Reef Distribution 2.5 How Has Earth Changed in the Past, and How Will It Look in the Future? The Past: Paleogeography The Future: Some Bold Predictions A Predictive Model: The Wilson Cycle ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS REVIEW 3 Marine Provinces Essential Learning Concepts 3.1 What Techniques Are Used to Determine Ocean Bathymetry? Soundings Echo Soundings Using Satellites to Map Ocean Propertiesfrom Space Seismic Reflection Profiles 3.2 What Features Exist on Continental Margins? Passive versus ActiveContinental Margins Continental Shelf Continental Slope Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents Continental Rise 3.3 What Features Exist in the Deep‐Ocean Basins? Abyssal Plains Volcanic Peaks of the Abyssal Plains Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs 3.4 What Features Exist along the Mid‐Ocean Ridge? Volcanic Features Hydrothermal Vents DIVING DEEPER 3.1 RESEARCH METHODS IN OCEANOGRAPHY: Earth’s Hypsographic Curve: Nearly Everything PROCESS OF SCIENCE 3.1 Now You See It, Now YouDon’t: The Unusual Caseof the Missing Sea FloorSeism Fracture Zones and Transform Faults Oceanic Islands ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS REVIEW 4 Marine Sediments Essential Learning Concepts 4.1 How Are Marine Sediments Collected, and What Historical Events Do They Reveal? Collecting Marine Sediments Environmental Conditions Revealed by Marine Sediments Paleoceanography 4.2 What Are the Characteristics of Lithogenous Sediment? Origin of Lithogenous Sediment Composition of Lithogenous Sediment Texture of LithogenousSediment Distribution of Lithogenous Sediment 4.3 What Are the Characteristics of Biogenous Sediment? Origin of Biogenous Sediment Composition of Biogenous Sediment DIVING DEEPER 4.1 OCEANS AND PEOPLE Diatoms: The Most Important Things You Have (Probably) Never Hea Distribution of Biogenous Sediment 4.4 What Are the Characteristics of Hydrogenous Sediment? Origin of Hydrogenous Sediment Composition and Distribution of Hydrogenous Sediment 4.5 What Are the Characteristics of Cosmogenous Sediment? Origin, Composition, and Distribution of Cosmogenous Sediment PROCESS OF SCIENCE 4.1:When The Dinosaurs Died:The Cretaceous–Tertiary(K–T) Event 4.6 How Are Pelagic and Neritic Deposits Distributed? Mixtures of Marine Sediment Neritic Deposits Pelagic Deposits Do Sea Floor Sediments Represent Surface Conditions? Worldwide Thickness ofMarine Sediments 4.7 What Resources Do Marine Sediments Provide? Energy Resources Other Resources ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS REVIEW 5 Water and Seawater Essential Learning Concepts 5.1 Why Does Water Have Such Unusual Chemical Properties? Atomic Structure The Water Molecule 5.2 What Important Physical Properties Does Water Possess? Water’s Thermal Properties Water Density as a Result of Thermal Expansionand Contraction 5.3 Why Is Seawater Salty? Salinity Determining Salinity Comparing Pure Water and Seawater DIVING DEEPER 5.1 OCEANS AND PEOPLE Forever Thirsty on a Water World 5.4 Why Does Seawater Salinity Vary? Salinity Variations Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity Dissolved Components Added to and Removed from Seawater 5.5 How Does Seawater Salinity Vary at the Surface and with Depth? Surface Salinity Variation Salinity Variation with Depth Halocline 5.6 How Does Seawater Density Vary with Depth? Factors Affecting Seawater Density Temperature and DensityVariation with Depth Thermocline and Pycnocline 5.7 Is the Ocean Acidic or Basic? The pH Scale The Carbonate Buffering System 5.8 What Factors Control the Distribution of Carbon and Oxygen in the Ocean? The Solubility and Distribution of Carbon Dioxidein the Ocean The Solubility and Distribution of Dissolved Oxygen in the Ocean How Does Dissolved Carbon and Oxygen in the OceanAffect Climate? Essential Concepts Review 6 Air–Sea Interaction Essential Learning Concepts 6.1 What Causes Variations in Solar Radiation on Earth? What Causes Earth’s Seasons? How Latitude Affects the Distribution of Solar Radiation Oceanic Heat Flow 6.2 What Physical Properties Does the Atmosphere Possess? Composition of the Atmosphere Temperature Variation in the Atmosphere Density Variation in the Atmosphere Atmospheric Water Vapor Content Atmospheric Pressure Movement of the Atmosphere An Example: A Nonspinning Earth 6.3 How Does the Coriolis Effect Influence Moving Objects? Example 1: Perspectives and Frames of Reference on a Merry-Go-Round Example 2: A Tale of Two Missiles Changes in the Coriolis Effect with Latitude 6.4 What Global Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Exist? Circulation Cells Pressure Wind Belts Boundaries Circulation Cells: Idealized or Real? DIVING DEEPER 6.1 HISTORICAL FEATURE: Why Christopher Columbus Never Set Foot on North America 6.5 How Does the Ocean Influence Global Weather Phenomena and Climate Patterns? Weather versus Climate Winds Storms and Fronts Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes) PROCESS OF SCIENCE 6.1 Hurricanes: Bad for People but Good for Dolphins? The Ocean’s Climate Patterns 6.6 Can Power from Wind Be Harnessed as a Source of Energy? Essential Concepts Review 7 Ocean Circulation Essential Learning Concepts 7.1 How Are Ocean Currents Measured? Surface Current Measurement Deep Current Measurement 7.2 What Creates Ocean Surface Currents and How Are They Organized? DIVING DEEPER 7.1 OCEANS AND PEOPLE Running Shoes as Drift Meters: Just Do It Origin of Surface Currents Main Components of Ocean Surface Circulation Other Factors Affecting Ocean Surface Circulation Ocean Currents and Climate 7.3 What Causes Upwelling and Downwelling? Diverging Surface Water Converging Surface Water Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling Other Causes of Upwelling 7.4 What Are the Main Surface Circulation Patterns in Each Ocean Basin? Antarctic Circulation Atlantic Ocean Circulation Indian Ocean Circulation DIVING DEEPER 7.2: HISTORICAL FEATURE Benjamin Franklin: The World’s Most Famous Physical Oceanogr Pacific Ocean Circulation PROCESS OF SCIENCE 7.1:El Niño and the Incredible Shrinking Marine Iguanas of the Galápagos Island 7.5 How Do Sea Ice and Icebergs Form? Formation of Sea Ice Formation of Icebergs 7.6 How Do Deep‐Ocean Currents Form? Origin of Thermohaline Circulation Sources of Deep Water Worldwide Deep-Water Circulation 7.7 Can Power from Currents Be Harnessed as a Source of Energy? Essential Concepts Review 8 Waves and Water Dynamics Essential Learning Concepts 8.1 How Are Waves Generated, and How Do They Move? Disturbances Generate Ocean Waves Wave Movement 8.2 What Characteristics Do Waves Possess? Wave Terminology Circular Orbital Motion Deep-Water Waves Shallow-Water Waves Transitional Waves 8.3 How Do Wind‐Generated Waves Develop? Wave Development Interference Patterns Rogue Waves 8.4 How Do Waves Change in the Surf Zone? Physical Changes as Waves Approach Shore Breakers and Surfing Wave Refraction PROCESS OF SCIENCE 8.1: A Wave’s Sweet Spot Revealed Wave Reflection 8.5 How Are Tsunami Created? Coastal Effects Some Examples of Historic and Recent Tsunami DIVING DEEPER 8.1 OCEANS AND PEOPLE Waves of Destruction: The 2011 Japanese Tsunami 8.6 Can Power from Waves Be Harnessed as a Source of Energy? Wave Power Plants and Wave Farms Global Coastal Wave Energy Resources Essential Concepts Review 9 Tides Essential Learning Concepts 9.1 What Causes Ocean Tides? Tide-Generating Forces Tidal Bulges: The Moon’s Tidal Bulges: The Sun’s Effect Earth’s Rotation and the Tides 9.2 How Do Tides Vary during a Monthly Tidal Cycle? The Monthly Tidal Cycle Complicating Factors Idealized Tide Prediction 9.3 What Do Tides Look Like in the Ocean? Amphidromic Points and Cotidal Lines Effect of the Continents Other Considerations 9.4 What Types of Tidal Patterns Exist? Diurnal Tidal Pattern Semidiurnal Tidal Pattern Mixed Tidal Pattern 9.5 What Tidal Phenomena Occur in Coastal Regions? An Example of Tidal Extremes: The Bay of Fundy Coastal Tidal Currents DIVING DEEPER 9.1: OCEANS AND PEOPLE Tidal Bores: Boring Waves These Are Not! Whirlpools: Fact or Fiction? Grunion: Doing What Comes Naturally on the Beach 9.6 Can Tidal Power Be Harnessed as a Source of Energy? Tidal Power Plants Essential Concepts Review 10 Beaches, Shoreline Processes, and the Coastal Ocean Essential Learning Concepts 10.1 How Are Coastal Regions Defined? Beach Terminology Beach Composition 10.2 How Does Sand Move on the Beach? Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline Movement Parallel to the Shoreline 10.3 What Features Are Typical of Erosional and Depositional Shores? Features of Erosional Shores Features of Depositional Shores DIVING DEEPER 10.1: OCEANS AND PEOPLE WARNING: RIP CURRENTS . . . DO YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO? 10.4 How Do Changes in Sea Level Produce Emerging and Submerging Shorelines? Features of Emerging Shorelines Features of Submerging Shorelines Changes in Sea Level 10.5 How Does Hard Stabilization Affect Coastlines? Groins and Groin Fields Jetties Breakwaters Seawalls Alternatives to Hard Stabilization 10.6 What are the Characteristics and Types of Coastal Waters? Characteristics of Coastal Waters Estuaries Lagoons Marginal Seas 10.7 What Issues Face Coastal Wetlands? Types of Coastal Wetlands Characteristics of Coastal Wetlands Serious Loss of Valuable Wetlands PROCESS OF SCIENCE 10.1:Recycling Christmas Trees to Save Louisiana’s Disappearing Coast Essential Concepts Review Types of Coastal Wetlands 345 Characteristics of Coastal Wetlands 347 Serious Loss of Valuable W Process of Science 10.1 Recycling Christmas Trees to Save Louisiana’s ‐Disappearing Coast 11 Marine Pollution Essential Learning Concepts 11.1 What Is Pollution? Marine Pollution: A Definition Environmental Bioassay The Issue of Waste Disposal in the Ocean 11.2 What Marine Environmental Problems Are Associated with Petroleum Pollution? The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Other Oil Spills DIVING DEEPER 11.1 FOCUS ON THE ENVIRONMENT THE 2010 GULF OF MEXICO DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL 11.3 What Marine Environmental Problems Are Associated with Non‐Petroleum Chemical Pollution? Sewage Sludge DDT and PCBs Mercury and Minamata Disease Other Types of Chemical Pollutants 11.4 What Marine Environmental Problems Are Associated with Non‐point Source Pollution, Including Non-point Source Pollution and Trash Plastics as Marine Debris 11.5 What Can You Do to Help Prevent Marine Pollution? DIVING DEEPER 11.2 FOCUS ON THE ENVIRONMENT TWELVE SIMPLE THINGS YOU CAN DO TO HELP PREVENT MARINE P 11.6 What Marine Environmental Problems Are Associated with Biological Pollution? The Seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia Zebra Mussels Other Notable Examples of Marine Biological Pollution Essential Concepts Review 12 Marine Life and the Marine Environment Essential Learning Concepts 12.1 What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified? A Working Definition of Life The Three Domains of Life The Six Kingdoms of Organisms Linnaeus and Taxonomic Classification 12.2 How Are Marine Organisms Classified? Plankton (Drifters) Nekton (Swimmers) Benthos (Bottom Dwellers) 12.3 How Many Marine Species Exist? Why Are There So Few Marine Species? Species in Pelagic and Benthic Environments 12.4 How Are Marine Organisms Adapted to the Physical Conditions of the Ocean? Need for Physical Support Water’s Viscosity Temperature Salinity Dissolved Gases Water’s High Transparency Pressure DIVING DEEPER 12.1 HISTORICAL FEATURE DIVING INTO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 12.5 What Are the Main Divisions of the Marine Environment? Pelagic (Open Sea) Environment 404 Benthic (Sea Bottom) Environment Essential Concepts Review 13 Biological Productivity and Energy Transfer Essential Learning Concepts 13.1 What Is Primary Productivity? Measurement of Primary Productivity Factors Affecting Primary Productivity Light Transmission in Ocean Water Why Are the Margins of the Oceans So Rich in Life? 13.2 What Kinds of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist? Seed-Bearing Plants (Anthophyta) Macroscopic (Large) Algae Microscopic (Small) Algae Ocean Eutrophication and Dead Zones Photosynthetic Bacteria 13.3 How Does Regional Primary Productivity Vary? Productivity in Polar (High-Latitude) Oceans:60 to 90 degrees North and South Latitude Productivity in Tropical (Low-Latitude) Oceans:0 to 30 degrees North and South Latitude Productivity in Temperate (Middle Latitude) Oceans:30 to 60 degrees North and South Latitude Comparing Regional Productivity 13.4 How Are Energy and Nutrients Passed Along in Marine Ecosystems? Flow of Energy in Marine Ecosystems Flow of Nutrients in Marine Ecosystems Oceanic Feeding Relationships 13.5 What Issues Affect Marine Fisheries? Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries Overfishing DIVING DEEPER 13.1 FOCUS ON THE ENVIRONMENT FISHING DOWN THE FOOD WEB: SEEING IS BELIEVING Incidental Catch Fisheries Management Effect of Global Climate Change on Marine Fisheries Seafood Choices DIVING DEEPER 13.2: FOCUS ON THE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTING OUR OCEANS: WHAT ARE MARINE PROTECTED AREAS Essential Concepts Review 14 Animals of the Pelagic Environment Essential Learning Concepts 14.1 How Are Marine Organisms Able to Stay above the Ocean Floor? Use of Gas Containers Ability to Float Ability to Swim The Diversity of Planktonic Animals 14.2 What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess for Seeking Prey? Mobility: Lungers versus Cruisers Swimming Speed DIVING DEEPER 14.1 OCEANS AND PEOPLE SOME MYTHS (AND FACTS) ABOUT SHARKS Adaptations of Deep-Water Nekton 14.3 What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess to Avoid Becoming Prey? Schooling Symbiosis Other Adaptations 14.4 What Characteristics Do Marine Mammals Possess? Mammalian Characteristics Order Carnivora Order Sirenia Order Cetacea DIVING DEEPER 14.2 OCEANS AND PEOPLE ARE WHALES STILL HUNTED? PROCESS OF SCIENCE 14.1:Why Do Gray Whales Migrate? Essential Concepts Review 15 Animals of the Benthic Environment Essential Learning Concepts 15.1 What Communities Exist along Rocky Shores? Intertidal Zonation The Spray (Supratidal) Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations The High Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations The Middle Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations The Low Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations 15.2 What Communities Exist along Sediment‐Covered Shores? Physical Environment of the Sediment Intertidal Zonation Sandy Beaches: Organisms and Their Adaptations 15.3 What Communities Exist on the Shallow Offshore Ocean Floor? Rocky Bottoms (Subtidal): Organisms and Their Adaptations Coral Reefs: Organisms and Their Adaptations Coral Reef Development PROCESS OF SCIENCE 15.1:How Will Coral Reefs Respond to Ocean Warming? 15.4 What Communities Exist on the Deep‐Ocean Floor? The Physical Environment Food Sources and Species Diversity Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Biocommunities:Organisms and Their Adaptations DIVING DEEPER 15.1: RESEARCH METHODS IN OCEANOGRAPHY HOW LONG WOULD YOUR REMAINS REMAIN ON THE SEA F Low-Temperature Seep Biocommunities:Organisms and Their Adaptations The Deep Biosphere: A New Frontier Essential Concepts Review 16 The Oceans and Climate Change Essential Learning Concepts 16.1 What Comprises Earth’s Climate System? The Carbon Cycle 16.2 Earth’s Recent Climate Change: Is It Natural or Caused by Human Activities? PROCESS OF SCIENCE: Are Natural Processes Causingthe Climate Change We See Today? Is There Scientific Consensus About Human-CausedClimate Change? The IPCC: Documenting Human-Caused Climate Change 16.3 What Causes the Atmosphere’s Greenhouse Effect? Earth’s Heat Budget and Changes in Wavelength Which Gases Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect? DIVING DEEPER 16.1: RESEARCH METHODS IN OCEANOGRAPHY THE ICONIC KEELING CURVE OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBON Other Considerations: Aerosols What Documented Changes Are Occurring Because ofGlobal Warming? 16.4 What Changes Are Occurring in the Oceans as a Result of Global Warming? Increasing Ocean Temperatures Changes in Deep-Water Circulation Melting of Polar Ice Ocean Acidification Rising Sea Level Other Predicted and Observed Changes PROCESS OF SCIENCE 16.1 Do Warming Oceans Help Deadly Marine Bacteria Prosper? 16.5 What Can Be Done to Reduce Greenhouse Gases? Approach #1: Renewable Clean Energy Approach #2: Solutions for Reducing Greenhouse Gases—Changing Behavior Approach #3: Global Engineering Solutions for Reducing Greenhouse Gases Thinking Like a Scientist: What’s Next? Essential Concepts Review Afterword Glossary Credits and Acknowledgments Index The "map" that changed the world

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